Detecting sheet was dismissed on iOS 13

Is there a way to detect that the presented view controller sheet was dismissed?

Yes.

Some other function I can override in the parent view controller rather than using some sort of delegate?

No. "Some sort of delegate" is how you do it. Make yourself the presentation controller's delegate and override presentationControllerDidDismiss(_:).

https://developer.apple.com/documentation/uikit/uiadaptivepresentationcontrollerdelegate/3229889-presentationcontrollerdiddismiss

Here's a code example of a parent view-controller which is notified when the child view-controller it presents as a sheet (i.e., in the default iOS 13 manner) is dismissed:

public final class Parent: UIViewController, UIAdaptivePresentationControllerDelegate
{
  // This is assuming that the segue is a storyboard segue; 
  // if you're manually presenting, just see the delegate there.
  public override func prepare(for segue: UIStoryboardSegue, sender: Any?)
  {
    if segue.identifier == "mySegue" {
      segue.destination.presentationController?.delegate = self;
    }
  }

  public func presentationControllerDidDismiss(
    _ presentationController: UIPresentationController)
  {
    // Only called when the sheet is dismissed by DRAGGING.
    // You'll need something extra if you call .dismiss() on the child.
    // (I found that overriding dismiss in the child and calling
    // presentationController.delegate?.presentationControllerDidDismiss
    // works well).
  }
}

Jerland2's answer is confused, since (a) the original questioner wanted to get a function call when the sheet is dismissed (whereas he implemented presentationControllerDidAttemptToDismiss, which is called when the user tries and fails to dismiss the sheet), and (b) setting isModalInPresentation is entirely orthogonal and in fact will make the presented sheet undismissable (which is the opposite of what OP wants).

For future readers here is a more complete answer with implementation:

  1. In the root view controllers prepare for segue add the following (Assuming your modal has a nav controller)
    // Modal Dismiss iOS 13
    modalNavController.presentationController?.delegate = modalVc
  1. In the modal view controller add the following delegate + method
// MARK: - iOS 13 Modal (Swipe to Dismiss)

extension ModalViewController: UIAdaptivePresentationControllerDelegate {
    func presentationControllerDidAttemptToDismiss(_ presentationController: UIPresentationController) {

        print("slide to dismiss stopped")
    }
}
  1. Ensure in the modal View Controller that the following property is true in order for the delegate method to be called
    self.isModalInPresentation = true
  1. Profit